The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Tsaghkavank

Location The Surb Astvatsatsin Church is situated at the heart of Tsaghkavank village in the Hadrut region (Fig. 1). The village of Tsaghkavank has been under Azerbaijani occupation since October 2020. Historical overview Tsaghkavank village is situated in the Hadrut region, approximately 12 km northeast of Hadrut city. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the village was known as Kharmanjugh (Barkhutareants 1895, 46). Following the establishment of the Soviet order, it was officially named Kharmanjugh. In December 1991, Azerbaijani troops captured and set fire to the village. Subsequently, after the first Artsakh liberation war, the village was liberated. In 1995, it underwent a renaming and is now known as Tsaghkavank. Architectural-compositional examination The church, constructed in 1830, takes the form of a single-nave rectangular hall. It features a spacious semicircular tabernacle and sacristies on the eastern side. The cylindrical nave is supported by two arches rising from pillars. The sole entrance is situated on the southern side, with a single broad window adorning the south wall. Notably, due to the slope of the terrain, the western facade and northern part of the church are partially embedded in the ground (Fig. 2). In the Soviet era, the church underwent a shift in purpose and was utilized for economic activities. Adjacent structures were constructed along the southern section of the church, and as a consequence of their collapse, the entrance to the church became partially obstructed. The condition before, during, and after the war As of September 2020, the church was standing. There is no available information regarding its current state or condition beyond that date. Bibliography Barkhutareants 1895 – Barkhutareants M., Artsakh, Baku. Balayan 2020 – Balayan V., Outlines of the History of Settlements of the Republic of Artsakh, Yerevan, “Zangak” Publishing house”.

The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Kavahan (Ghavakhan)

Location The Surb Astvatsatsin Church is situated in the central part of the village of Kavahan, in the Martuni region of the Republic of Artsakh, on the southern edge of the residential district. Historical overview According to the construction inscription engraved on the entrance, the Surb Astvatsatsin Church was built in 1871. The inscription reads, ‘This holy church was built by the work of the Ghavakhan society, 1871’ (Fig. 1). Before the construction of the current church, there existed an older sanctuary at this location. This is supported by two khachkars from the 12th-13th centuries, which are positioned on the walls of the church and feature sculptures (Figs. 2, 3).

The Srbots Nahatakats (Holy Martyrs) Church of Aghavno village

Location The church is situated in the administrative region of Aghavno village in the Kashatagh region of the Republic of Artsakh, near the checkpoint serving as the official entrance to the Republic of Artsakh (Figs. 1, 2).  It is currently under the occupation of the Azerbaijani military.

The Srbots Targmanchats church of Kghartsi

Location The Surb Targmanchats Church is situated in the center of Kghartsi village in the Martuni region (Fig. 1). The village has been under Azerbaijani occupation since September 2023. Historical overview According to M. Barkhudaryan, the church was constructed with contributions from the community. Inside the church, significant artifacts were stored, including a silver cross-reliquary, a tree of life, and an illustrated gospel manuscript written by Hovhannes in 1477 in Aghtamar (Barkhutareants 1895, 111-112). Architectural-compositional examination The church was constructed in the 19th century and is a three-nave vaulted hall with a rectangular layout (Fig. 2). . On the eastern side, there is a semi-circular tabernacle with a pair of sacristies. The dimensions of the church are 18.7 meters in length and 12.6 meters in width. The northern wall retains the baptismal font, on the arched stone of which verses from the Gospel of John are inscribed. “Except a man be born of water and [of] the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God” (Fig. 3). Similar lines can be found on the front part of the arch of the tabernacle’s dome: “Whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you” (Fig. 4).

The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Arajadzor

Location The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Arajadzor is situated in the Martakert region of the Republic of Artsakh, within the boundaries of the village bearing the same name (Fig. 1). The village has been occupied by the armed forces of Azerbaijan. Historical overview According to the construction inscription, the church was constructed in 1668, with the inscription positioned on the south wall of the church. “In the year 1117 of the Armenian calendar, during the reign of Catholicos Petros of Caucasian Albania, Yaghub Beg and Aghsakhkhali Pahar, I, the humble elder priest Davit, erected this church in memory of our souls. To those who read this, may they extend their mercy to the sinner” (CAE 1982, 89). Makar Barkhudaryants also references the inscription similarly. He also provides a concise description of the church, stating, “Surb Astvatsatsin church, vaulted over two arches, with a length of 16 meters and 13 centimeters, and a width of 9 meters and 15 centimeters…” (Barkhutareants 1895, 187). Architectural-compositional examination The church is a rectangular single-nave vaulted hall. The church is constructed using small and medium-sized limestone blocks held together with mortar. Its sole entrance is situated on the south side (Fig. 2). Atop the church, there is an arched belfry supported by six single columns (Fig. 3). It has suffered partial destruction and there is no katoghike (main church) (Fig. 4). The church’s vaulting is held up by pilasters that rise from pairs of wall pillars located on both the southern and northern sides (Figs. 5, 6). The presence of khachkars on its southern facade adds to its unique aesthetic appeal. These khachkars are placed near the entrance and window (Figs. 7, 8).

The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Upper Ghlijbagh

Location Surb Astvatsatsin Church is located in the Askeran region, in the Upper Ghlijbagh village (Fig. 1). It has been under the control of the Azerbaijani military since September 2023. Historical overview The Upper Ghlijbagh village is situated to the northwest of Khnapat village. According to M. Barkhudaryan’s work “Inhabitants of Ghlijbagh are natives” (Barkhutareants 1895, 106). During the years of Soviet rule, the village’s inhabitants were relocated to the foothills, to an area known today as Inner Ghlijbagh. Architectural-compositional examination The church is a single-nave hall with a rectangular floor plan. It features a semi-circular tabernacle at the eastern end, flanked by storage rooms on both sides (Fig. 2). There are two openings on the northern and southern walls of the Tabernacle, although the stage is not currently preserved. The cylindrical nave is upheld by arches that ascend from two sets of pillars located near the walls (Fig. 3). The roof is externally covered with earth. The church lacks ornamentation, except for a few simple khachkars integrated into the interior walls (Figs. 4, 5). Constructed from local rough limestone, the corners of the walls, the porch’s curbstones, and the windows are all meticulously polished. The church has a single entrance located on the southern side (Fig. 6). The construction date, “1861” (Fig. 7), is still legible on the nave of the church.

The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Karashen (Dashushen)

Location Dashushen (also known as Karashen) village is situated in the Askeran region of the Republic of Artsakh. It is located 23 km from Askeran and 6 km from Stepanakert. The village area is home to several notable landmarks, including the Surb Astvatsatsin Church, surrounded by tombstones, the Karin Jur spring (For further details refer to https://monumentwatch.org/en/monument/the-karin-jur-spring-monument-of-karashen-dashushen-village/), and the Tadeos Bridge (https://monumentwatch.org/en/monument/qarashen-villages-tadeos-bridge/), Surb Saribek sanctuary, etc. Dashushen village is currently under Azerbaijani military occupation. Historical overview Makar Barkhudaryants provides information about Dashushen village in his work “Artsakh” (Barkhutareants 1895, 131). The author describes the village’s location, amenities, and climate, highlighting that the village’s 40 local households are indigenous. He mentions the Surb Srabek pilgrimage site and observes that it attracts numerous pilgrims, primarily from Shushi. Barkhudaryants also makes note of the ruins of the Nerkin Shen and Soghomon Shen settlements, explaining that their residents relocated to Shushi in 1860 (Barkhudaryants 1895, 131). Information about Dashushen (Karashen) can also be gleaned from inscriptions that are still preserved on the church, springs, and tombstones in the area. Barkhudaryants also makes a mention of Surb Astvatsatsin Church, noting that the church had one priest. During the Soviet period, Surb Astvatsatsin Church served as a house of culture and later as a warehouse. A two-story adjacent building was constructed on the western side. In the years of independence, the church’s original purpose was reinstated, and it underwent restoration thanks to the contributions of benefactors. Architectural-compositional examination The Surb Astvatsatsin Church is situated in the village and has dimensions of 8 meters in width and 11 meters in length (1843, fig. 1). It is a single-nave hall with sacristies on both sides of the high altar. The baptismal font is located on the northern wall (Fig. 2). Constructed using local rough limestone, the entrance is situated on the southern side. The interior is vaulted, with the roof being supported by the structure’s walls, the tabernacle arch, and the vaulted arch. Polished stones are used in the construction of the corner sections of the building, the entrance lintels, the tabernacle arch, and the arch that supports the vault (Fig. 3). The arches are designed in a stylized manner (Fig. 4). The structure originally had a tiled roof, which was later replaced with tin sheets during the Soviet period. As part of the restoration efforts, a four-column bell tower was added to the central portion of the roof of the building.

The Surb Stepanos church of Khachmach

Location The Surb Stepanos Church of Khachmach is situated in the Askeran region of the Republic of Artsakh, at the heart of the village bearing the same name (Fig. 1). Historical overview According to the inscription on the door (Fig. 2), the Surb Stepanos Church was constructed “in the year 1651” (Figs. 3, 4). Usta Hovsep is mentioned as the builder of the church. Makar Barkhudaryants writes in his work “Artsakh”: “… the church of Surb Stepannos built on an arch without columns, which has a small main church (Katoghike), with a length of 13 meters and 90 centimeters and a width of 9 meters and 32 centimeters. On the east side of the door, an inscription is engraved.” “I, Usta Yusep, and Georg built this church as a memorial. May God have mercy on whoever sees it” The year 1651 is engraved on the facade stone of the door (Barkhudaryants 1895, 200, cf. CAE 1982, 159). Unfortunately, the original construction inscription has not survived to this day.

The Karmir (Red) Church (Mausoleum of Melik Pashayans)

Location Situated on the eastern periphery of Tsovategh village within the Martuni region, the Karmir Church complex, renowned alternatively as Melik Pashayans’ mausoleum, occupies an elevated position atop a hill (Fig. 1). Historical overview In the 19th century, scholars verified the presence of a complex ensemble of structures at this site, encompassing a church, three subterranean tombs in its vicinity, and an extensive cemetery (Barkhudareants 1895, 106-108). “Graves can be found both within the chapels and the main church, with tombstones fashioned from solid black stones, devoid of any inscriptions or carvings” (Lalayan 1897, 49). “Towards the eastern fringes of the village, atop a modest hill, lies a cluster of closely situated graves. Amidst this burial ground stands a distinctive four-nave, arched church. Among these chambers, three are situated underground, while one partially emerges from the earth’s surface, resembling an akeldama (graveyard). There is a multitude of graves, including the resting places of Melik Pasha and Bishop Sahak” (Jalayants 1858, 514). Today, only the church and the cemetery have endured the test of time. As indicated by an inscription etched onto a stone at the entrance of the church, its construction dates back to the year 1621. “The year 1621, Bishop David. This church monastery is a commemorative tribute, intended to serve as a tomb and final resting place for our forebears” (CAE 5, 160). In the year 2022, excavations were conducted within the vicinity of the church, primarily to uncover chapel tombs. These endeavors did not yield the anticipated discovery, and no such tombs were unearthed. The excavations yielded an array of findings, including fragments of khachkars spanning various epochs (Figs. 2, 3), inscription stones, and tombstones integrated into the church walls (Fig. 4). Furthermore, burials were uncovered at various locations within the church premises.

Surb Hovhannes Mkrtich church of Gandzasar

The Gandzasar monastic complex consists of several buildings, including the church, vestibule (gavit), monastic cells, refectory, and utility facilities. In addition, the monastery complex includes a two-story school building that dates back to the 19th century (see Fig. 1). Each building has a surrounding wall with gates situated on the western and southern sides. A vast cemetery extends beyond the southern wall of the monastery complex (Fig. 2).

Surb Astvatsatsin church of Vardadzor

Location The Surb Astvatsatsin Church is situated on the southwestern outskirts of the village of Vardadzor in the Askeran region of the Republic of Artsakh, within the village’s old neighborhood (Fig. 1). Historical overview Surb Astvatsatsin Church was constructed in the nineteenth century. Part of the construction date was left unfinished in the construction inscription engraved on the lintel (Fig. 2). The inscription is divided into two parts and says: “The Armenian Church of the Surb Astvatsatsin was built with the financial means of Baghtasar Shamkhaleantsi and his sons Sargs and Hovhannes, Pirajamal villagers. For the souls of all the deceased. May God have mercy on all of us. Amen. Surb Asvatsatsin Church in the Armenian village of Pirajamal was also built with financial means by a Shushi citizen/Holy Land pilgrim Shahkalti Harutyuneants, in memory/and for the salvation of his late son Mirza’s soul and his parents, and was completed in the year….”. Makar Barkhudaryants’ work “Artsakh” contains information about the village and the church, which includes the following details: The village of Pir-Chamal was established on the eastern slope of a mountain. Its inhabitants are native to the area, with some having moved from Jraberd, and a few from Old Keatuk and Belukan. The land in Pir-Chamal is fragile and arid, but fertile and has a lot of gardens. The air, climate, and water are remarkable. The village church is named Surb Astvatsatsin and is a stone-built structure constructed by financial means of the pilgrim of the holy land, pious, Shahkealdi from Shushi, and the late Baghdasar Shamkhalian of Pir-Chamal. There is one priest serving in the church. The village has 146 households, with 475 males and 357 females (Barkhutareants 1895, 128). There are four 17th-century khachkars in the upper part of the church’s eastern facade (Figs. 3, 4). One inscription bears the date “(1671)”, and two others read “Cross of Khanzat”, and “Cross of Pirhamzi”.

Surb Gevorg Church of the Sarnaghbyur Village

Location Surb Gevorg church is situated on a steep slope on the western edge of Sarnaghbyur village in the Askeran region of the Republic of Artsakh (Fig. 1). Historical overview According to the lintel inscription, the church was built in 1875 by the brothers Harutyun, Tsatur, Andreas, and Jumshud Ter Harutyunyan from Pirjamal (Vardadzor) in memory of their parents Milkum and Aziz (Figs. 2, 3).

Surb Astvatsatsin church of Haterk

Location The church is located in the center of Haterk village in the Martakert region of the Republic of Artsakh. Historical overview There is no historical information available about the church, but it can be dated to the 17th century based on its construction and technical architecture. Architectural-compositional examination Makar Barkhudaryants, describing Haterk village, notes:  “…the church is Surb Astvatsatsin, constructed from stone, built on four arches without central pillars, quite old and completely unadorned, length 22 meters 75 centimeters, width 9 meters 85 centimeters…” (Barkhutareants 1895, 201). Barkhudaryants describes a dilapidated church constructed from semi-finished stones and lime mortar (Figs. 1, 2). It is a single-nave hall on the inside. The cylindrical vault rests on the arches rising from the pillars (Figs. 3, 4). The arches’ stones and pillars are polished. Simple crosses adorn the arches near the walls. The church’s only entrance is located on the south side, with plastered walls inside. The tabernacle used to be horseshoe-shaped (Fig. 5).

Surb Mariam Astvatsatsin church of Vaghuhas

Location Surb Mariam Astsvatsatsin Church is situated on an elevated site in the Martakert region of the Republic of Artsakh (Fig. 1). Historical overview Construction works of the church began in 2007. Grigori Hayrapetyan, a Vaghuhas villager and Russian resident, funded the project. Archbishop Pargev Martirosyan, leader of the Diocese of Artsakh, consecrated the church in 2012, on the occasion of the village’s 19th anniversary of liberation (https://news.am/arm/news/94233.html). Architectural-compositional examination The church is constructed of white limestone from Artsakh, with load-bearing structures, arches, and vaults made of reinforced concrete and lined with orange tuff stone. The structure of the church is akin to Surb Hakob Church of Stepanakert, showing a slightly stretched symmetry from west to east in a cruciform design, with subtle differences in window sizes, openings, and styling. A small bell tower stands atop the tiled roof at the center of the vault intersection (Fig. 2). The condition before and after the war During the Artsakh War, the church was unscathed. Bibliography 1. The newly built church of Vaghuhas village of Artsakh was consecrated, https://news.am/arm/news/94233.htm.

The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Msmna

Location Surb Astvatsatsin Church is located in the center of Msmna village in Artsakh’s Martuni region (Fig. 1). Historical overview Surb Astvatsatsin Church was constructed in 1881. Makar Barkhudaryants provides information about the church, also stating that “The church is Surb Astvatsatsin, made of stone on two arches. The priest comes from the village of Ghavakhan (Kavahan) (Barkhutareants 1895, 108). Although the church was built at the end of the nineteenth century, khachkars and decorative fragments on the walls attest that there was a sanctuary here at least since the 12th-13th centuries (Figs. 2, 3).

Surb Astvatsatsin church of Karmir village

Location Surb Astvatsatsin Church is located in the Askeran region’s Karmir village (Fig. 1). Historical overview Karmir village, also known as Trnavarz-Drnavarz, is located in the Askeran region. According to Makar Barkhudaryan, “Drnavarz was established on the Poghrkhana Mountain’s south-eastern slope. The villagers are indigenous to the land” (Barkhutareants 1895, 85). Drnavarz was renamed Karmir Village in 1921. Architectural-compositional examination The church was built in 1841, according to an inscription on the entrance facade stone. It is a single-nave rectangular hall made of rough limestone and lime mortar. The structure’s cornerstones, the tabernacle, the entrance curbstones, arches, vaults, windows, and other openings are polished. The semicircular tabernacle on the eastern side has sacristies on both sides (Fig. 2). It is internally vaulted (Fig. 3), and it has a new double-tiled roof on the outside. The nave is supported by arrow-shaped arches that rise from two pairs of pilasters.

The Surb Grigoris church of Herher

Location The Surb Grigoris Church of Herher is situated in the center of the same-named village in the Martuni region of the Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), at an elevation of 846 meters above the plain (Fig. 1). Historical overview Herher village is one of the most significant settlements of Amaras valley. It was the summer residence of the monks of Amaras monastery and the center of the Varanda and Kochezi eparchies, according to written sources and inscriptions preserved on the walls of Surb Grigoris church. This circumstance aided the architectural characterization of the church, as relics were collected here, khachkars were constructed, and there are inscriptions containing reliable information about historical events and people. According to Makar Barkhudareants, the village was established on the northern portion of the mountain ridge with the same name. He also gives data about the settlement’s climatic conditions, air, water, demography, church, and inscriptions (Barkhutareants 1895, 104-106). Jalalyants also mentioned the church inscriptions (Jalalyants 1858, 330), and Sedrak Barkhudaryan published the more complete originals (CAE 5, 164-168). According to the construction inscription on the church’s southern facade, the church was built in 1667-1676 by order of Petros the Catholicos under the leadership of Archbishop Barsegh (Fig. 2). “With Christ’s blessing, I Barsegh Archbishop, a pupil of Petros Catholichos, son of Aghay and Gul from the Varanda region, village Gish, repaired several rooms of the holy church in Amaras, surrounded it with battlement, lavishly decorated it, and had another church built as a summer residence. Named it Surb Grigoris and brought some relics there in the years of 1667–1676” (CAE 5, 164). Thus, the inscription not only informs about the time and circumstances of the Surb Grigoris Church’s construction but also the works that were done in Amaras: the construction of surrounding walls with numerous attached infrastructures, as well as the repair and decoration of the Amaras Church “repaired several rooms of the holy church in Amaras, surrounded it with battlement, lavishly decorated it.” Also, it is unclear which structure is meant by the church of Amaras, the chapel shrine of Grigoris, or a church built on or adjacent to it, the existence of which is unknown from other sources. Architectural-compositional examination The Surb Grigoris Church of Herher is a three-nave basilica with a four-aisled dome. It measures 19.2 x 13.6 meters externally (Fig. 3). It’s constructed of rough white limestone blocks and lime mortar. The entrances, columns, arches, volume under the dome, entrance edges, and parapets are all made of polished stone. The high altar is circular, with rectangular vaulted sacristies on both sides and entrances from the naves’ side of the prayer hall. There are two windows in the sacristies’ walls. The church has two entrances, one on each side, on the western and southern sides. From the exterior, the main, rectangular entrance on the west side is designed as an arched porch. It is quite deep. The wide arch is supported by impost capitals that are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the entrance. The porch’s lintel and entire facade are covered with inscriptions (Fig. 4), geometrical sculptures, and plant carvings, bearing striking similarities to the porch of the Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Tsaghkavank (Hadrut region) (Fig. 5).

Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Khnushinak

Location Khnushinak village is located in the Martuni region of the Republic of Artsakh, between the settlements of Chartar and Gish, 16 kilometers from the regional center Martuni. Surb Astvatsatsin Church, built in the nineteenth century, is situated on the high ground of the village’s western side (Fig. 1). Historical overview The main inscription of Khnushinak’s Surb Astvatsatsin Church has been preserved on the entrance facade, according to which the church was constructed in 1860 by Agha Hayrapet bek Dolukhaniants from the city of Shushi “The church was built by the will of God in Khnushinak village, thanks to the financial support of the pious, noble agha Hayrapet Bey Dolukhaniants of Shushi city, in memory of his soul and his noble spouse Bakumai Melik Beklariants, as well as the parents, Baghdasar Bey, father, and mother Nazlu Khan, in the year of 1860 ” (Barkhutareants 1895, 120). The structure’s second inscription is located on the vaulted wall and most likely refers to the construction of a small belfry on the roof, from which just four columns remain “This holy church’s upper story is dedicated to Baba Yepremean and his son Khachatur, spouse Margarit, December 22, 1894.” (Fig. 2). We learn more about Surb Astvatsatsin Church in Khnushinak from the structure’s inscriptions and the work of Makar Barkhudareants “Artsakh,” which mentions, among other things, that the church had two priests (Barkhudaryants 1895, 120). Architectural-compositional description The church is a single-nave hall with sacristies on both sides of the tabernacle. The vault, vaulted arches, and dome are all strongly arrow-shaped, giving the prayer hall a vertical stretch (Fig. 3). Except for the corner sections, entrance and windows, vaulted arches, and stage bema stones, the walls are lined with local unpolished stones. The interior of the church is plastered. The baptismal font is located on the northern wall. The structure’s length is 17.45 meters and its width is 8.80 meters. The church’s only entrance is on the south side, and there are two large arched windows on both sides of the entrance. On the eastern side, there is another large window (Fig. 4). There are six small windows in the structure, two on the north wall, two on the east wall, and one on each of the south and west walls. There are two rosettes in the upper part of the entrance, on both sides of the small window (Fig. 5), and the tabernacle bema and other parts are decorated with simple crosses.

Yeghtsadzor Church of Upper Sznek

Location The church known as “Yeghtsadzor Yeghtsi” is located on the outskirts of Upper Sznek village in the Askeran region of the Republic of Artsakh (Fig. 1). Historical overview There is no historical information available about the church. In his description of Upper Sznek, Makar Barkhudareants only mentions the village square’s church (Barkhutareants 1895, 101). Architectural-compositional examination The church is a rectangular vaulted single-nave hall with an eastern semi-circular tabernacle, a pair of sacristies, and windows built into the bema (Fig. 2). The burial arches are supported by pillars made of tombstones from the 16th and 17th centuries. A baptismal font is built into the northern wall near the bema. Reliefs on the bema, table, and curb stone at the entrance to the sacristies are also created by reusing khachkars, tombstones, and other polished stones (Fig. 3). In them, a khachkar from the 12th-13th centuries with a sculpture stands out. The church’s measurements are 10×8 meters. It is made of rough limestone and sandstone, lime mortar, and is plastered internally. The western and eastern facades each have three narrow windows. The roof is made of asbestos roofing from the years of independence.

The Surb Astvatsatsin Church of Old Skhtorashen

Location The church is located on the grounds of the Martuni region’s Old Skhtorashen rural settlement, east of the famous Platanus tree (Figs. 1, 2), in the zone of visibility and direct aiming of the Azerbaijani military. Historical overview The rural settlement of Old Skhtorashen is about 1-kilometer northwest of Karmir Shuka village. Makar Barkhudaryants claims that “…the residents of Skhtorashen are native to this land” (Barkhutareants 1895, 68). The church was built in 1731, according to the inscription on the lintel (“In the year of 1731”, fig. 3). Architectural-compositional examination It is a rectangular single-nave hall with a semicircular tabernacle on the eastern side and two windows on the northern and southern walls. It is vaulted internally, with a gable roof externally. The vault rests on arrow-shaped arches rising from a pair of columns. The dimensions are 13.7 meters long, 7 meters wide, and 6 meters tall. It is constructed of milky limestone, and the porch, outer corners of the hall, window parapets, niches, and baptismal font are all lined with large, polished stones. The western wall was reinforced internally and externally, along the width of the high altar, with a horizontal anti-seismic zone made of logs. Logs are no longer there. The porch entrance faces south and has an architectural and sculptural design typical of the time: an external polished border, sculptured entrance curbstones, and a wide semicircular lintel (Fig. 4). The lower part of the lintel’s horizontal sculptured zone continues and wraps up the decoration of the entrance curbs, highlighting its solemnity. The rest of the surface is taken up by lettered crosses embedded in the three arches, at the bottom of which the church’s construction date is engraved in large regular majuscule writing (Fig. 3).